Conservation

 
 
1.     Be able to describe the effect on wild life resulting from: fire, overgrazing, unwise forest practice, soil erosion and water pollution. Know how erosion affects fish feeding grounds and spawning grounds. List the main sources of pollution of streams.
2.     Know the relationship between wild life and natural habitat and how the activities of man affect the natural environment.
3.     Know the relationship in nature between the units of 1 of the following groups:
a.     Foxes, mice, and young forest plantations
b.    Trees, insects, birds.
4.     Know why the laws are made setting definite seasons and bag limits on shooting and fishing, and know the proper dates and bag limits on 2 species of game and 2 of game fish.
5.     Do 1 of the following:
a.     * Make a list of the kinds of birds, mammals, insects and wild flowers on a plot of ungrazed woodland of about 4 acres (130m, x 130m, sq.). Make a similar list for an area of 4 acres of woodland grazed by cattle, and state why the populations are so different.
b.    * Select 1 species of wild life common in his neighbourhood and find out what are the best ways to protect it.
c.     * Go out for at least 2 days with a fisherman, Game Keeper, Fishery Officer or conservationist, and write a report on the methods he uses.
6.      Do 1 of the following:
a.     * Help stock or fertilise a fish pond.
b.    * Plant 100m of stream banks to control erosion.
c.     * Set out 100 food plants for birds and mammals.
d.    * Help plant a windbreak or hedge or other suitable winter cover for wild life.
e.     * Build and set out in suitable places 8 nesting boxes.
 
Alternative
1.     Know what is meant by the following terms: precipitation, run off, ground water, water table, evaporation, transpiration, and make a diagrammatic drawing illustrating this complete cycle.
2.      
a.      Name 3 causes of floods.
b.    State 3 methods of controlling floods.
3.     Name 3 different causes of pollution in rivers or streams, and indicate how these can be controlled.
4.     Explain how water conservation is related to soil conservation.
5.     Do one of the following:
a.     * Follow a small stream to its source, and see where it originates.
b.    Estimate the flow of water in a stream indicated by the Examiner.
c.     * Help make a farm pond.
d.    * Carry out or assist with bank erosion control or other improvement project on a stream, pond or lake.
6.     Do 1 of the following:
a.     * Visit a project built for flood control, or for increasing summer flow in a river, or for irrigation purposes, and write a report on conditions before and after construction.
b.    * Visit a farm pond and write a report on the type and purpose of the pond.
c.     * Visit a stream or river and write a report on its condition under the heading of:
                                          i.    colour
                                         ii.    smell
                                        iii.    fish
                                        iv.    swimming.
d.    * Find out what happens to domestic and industrial waste in his community and give a written report on (i) the methods used to purify the waste and prevent pollution or (ii) what should be done to prevent it polluting waterways.
 
Alternative
1.     Name and describe 5 kinds of soil.
2.     Know the meaning of the terms: organic, inorganic, soil profile, humus and tilth.
3.     Explain what is meant by: contour, deep and shallow ploughing.
4.     Describe what is meant by crop rotation and how it assists more efficient production.
5.     Explain the meaning of: gully erosion, wind erosion, stream bank erosion; and give a method for controlling each of the above types of erosion.
6.     Do 1 of the following:
a.     * Examine soil profile and identify the different layers (horizons).
b.    * Help carry out a soil conservation project on a farm or Scout camp site.
c.     * Plant at least 100 shrubs or trees as part of a soil conservation plan to prevent erosion.
7.      Do 1 of the following:
a.     Take a photograph or make a sketch of 1 form of erosion mentioned in (5) above.
b.    Plant 2 bean seeds in a flower pot of topsoil, and 2 bean seeds in a flower pot of subsoil. Tend them for a month and report of difference in rate of growth in 2 pots, appearance of plants, and other differences.
c.     In a glass jar collect muddy water from a stream and allow to stand for 6 hours. Observe the amount of soil which settled to the bottom. State where you think the soil originated.
d.    In a shallow dish, place vet samples of 2 different soils, 1 low in organic matter and the other high. Dry out thoroughly and make a brief report of the effect on each.
 
Note: Items marked* may be carried out in company with other Scouts taking the same test but reporting separately